Early History of PBS — Late 1980s to Early 1990s
During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Drs. Ed Kame’enui, George Sugai, Geoff Colvin and Tim Lewis, along with their colleagues at the University of Oregon, began developing school-wide positive behavior support systems (SW-PBS), and piloting SW-PBS in a number of schools in the northwest U.S. and Canada. This initiative was developed in association with Project PREPARE. Project PREPARE was aligned with earlier work by Dr. Hill Walker.
Variously known as Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports (SW-PBS), Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS), Positive Behavior Supports (PBS), and Effective Behavior Supports (EBS), all refer to the same research based framework for building social competence and positive learning environments for students.
Dr. Rob Horner joined in projects associated with SW-PBS, bringing an emphasis on applications to individuals with severe developmental disabilities. This research aligned with individual PBS. Dr. Horner’s role increased over time, and he is currently one of the co-directors of the OSEP Center on PBIS, along with Drs. George Sugai and Tim Lewis.
1996 – 1999
Dr. Tim Lewis joined the faculty of the University of Missouri Special Education Department. Soon after, he began a federally funded model-demonstration research project with some of the Columbia, MO public schools (Parkade and Benton).
During the 1997-1998 school year, Dr. Lewis begins consultation with the Special School District in St. Louis, MO. Their first Summer Institute was held in 1998.
In 1999, Dr. Lewis and colleagues (Wayne Sailor, Rod and Anne Turnbull from KU; Glen Dunlap from U of South Florida; George Sugai, Rob Horner, Geoff Colvin and Ed Kame’enui from Oregon; Mike Nelson and Terry Scott from University of Kentucky in conjunction with EDU grant) were the recipients of a national grant through the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). Funding from this grant established the first national SW-PBS Center: the OSEP Center on PBIS, Effective School-wide Interventions — located at the University of Oregon.
1999 – 2007
The Missouri state initiative began during 2000-2001 school year. The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) local improvement grants (LIGs) were awarded to districts to attend trainings throughout the year and during summer institutes. Staff from the University of Missouri Center for Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports provided the trainers for these activities. The staff also worked with designated school/district personnel to train them as coaches for their school districts. Research school sites were provided ongoing technical assistance as they participated in specific research projects under the direction of Dr. Lewis. During this time, Dr. Lewis was made chair of the MU Department of Special Education.
The University of Arizona (Carl Liapsun), University of Florida (Terry Scott), North Carolina at Charlotte (Bob Algozzine), and Connecticut (George Sugai) joined as research partners in National PBIS.
The National PBIS Center received a second 5-year grant from OSEP. U.S. regional resource centers were invited to be a part of the initiative and provided full-time technical assistance and trainings to schools, districts, states, and nationwide. These included Don Kincaid at South Florida, Susan Barrett at Maryland, Lucille Eber at Illinois, and Carol Massanari at the Mountain Regional Resource Center.
The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) began providing funding for full-time PBS consultants at 6 of the state’s 9 regional professional development centers (RPDCs). The RPDCs were located throughout the state and each worked in cooperation with a local branch of the University of Missouri.
Ms. Julia LePage became the interim director for Effective Practices through DESE, which included the state’s SW-PBS initiative.
DESE began providing funding for a state coordinator of SW-PBS, as well as funding to increase the number of regional consultants from 6 to 10. Mary Richter, Ph.D., was hired as the state coordinator.
The regional consultants were provided monthly training through modules developed by Lori Newcomer, Ph.D, who also served as a member of the state’s SW-PBS management and leadership teams.
Dr. Lewis was named Associate Dean for Research for the College of Education at MU. He remains actively involved in PBS and the DESE initiative as a member of the state management and leadership teams, as well as an advisor to Missouri SW-PBS.
Linda Bradley, Columbia Public Schools SW-PBS facilitator; Susan Brawley, Heart of Missouri SW-PBS consultant; Nanci Johnson, Columbia Public Schools SW-PBS facilitator; Christine Combs, South Central Missouri SW-PBS consultant; Dr. George Sugai, co-director of the National PBIS Institute; Dr. Lori Newcomer, University of Missouri-St. Louis assistant professor; Dr. Mary Richter, Missouri state coordinator SW-PBS; Julia LePage, Interim Director of Effective Practices, DESE; Lois Jones, Southwest Missouri SW-PBS consultant; Dr. Terry Bigby, Kansas City SW-PBS consultant; Dr. Tim Lewis, associate dean College of Education University of Missouri; Mickey Hughes, St. Louis SW-PBS consultant; Brandi Schumacher, Southeast SW-PBS consultant
2007 – 2008
The Missouri initiative continued to grow. There were over 300 schools implementing SW-PBS within approximately 95 school districts. In addition, the number of regional consultants was increased to 13, including nine consultants located in eight regional professional development centers (RPDCs), two state-wide secondary/tertiary level consultants, a state website & data analyst consultant, and a state coordinator. These positions were funded through the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE). The consultants participated in monthly 2 ½ day trainings and meetings to collaborate and to receive technical assistance.
The June, 2008 Summer Institute (SI) was attended by over 800 participants. Nationally and internationally recognized experts in SW-PBS presented at the SI including Dr. Robert Horner, co-director of the national PBIS center; Dr. Tim Lewis, national partner and director of MU Center for SW-PBS, Dr. Lori Newcomer, national and international SW-PBS trainer; Susan Barrett, state director of Maryland PBIS and consultant to the national center; and Dr. Steven Evans, professor at George Mason University and expert in ADHD and children’s mental health issues.
At this time, MO SW-PBS began developing standardized training modules that aligned with state goals and best practices identified by the national PBIS initiative. In addition, the state team began analyzing data related to long-range initiative planning, upgrading the website, and conducting outreach activities.
Back Row: Dr. Nanci Johnson Missouri SW-PBS Web Page and Data Consultant; Susan Brawley, Heart of Missouri SW-PBS Consultant; Dr. Terry Bigby, Kansas City SW-PBS Consultant; Brandi Schumacher, Southeast SW-PBS Consultant; Dr. Tim Lewis, College of Education University of Missouri, Professor; Jill Miller, Northeast SW-PBS Consultant; Dr. Mary Richter, Missouri State Coordinator SW-PBS; Lois Jones, Southwest Missouri SW-PBS Consultant; Bob Rethemeyer, Central Missouri SW-PBS Consultant; Dr. Rob Horner, co-director of the National PBIS Institute. Front Row: Linda Bradley, Clinical Associate, University of Missouri-Columbia; Karen Westhoff, St. Louis SW-PBS Consultant; Julia LePage, Director of Effective Practices, DESE; Carol Plumley, Southwest Missouri SW-PBS Consultant; Jo Ann Anderson, South Central Missouri SW-PBS Consultant.
Over 500 Missouri schools were now served by MO SW-PBS. In cooperation wtih the MU Center for SW-PBS, the MO SW-PBS state team continued to make progress in developing a standardized curriculum for training at progressive training levels. This curriculum included the piloting of some web-based training modules.
The June, 2009 Summer Institute attendance exceeded 1,300 participants. Training strands for administrators, high schools, elementary schools and middle schools were emphasized. Functional behavioral assessment training, autism awareness, and response to intervention were also included. The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) recognized 134 exemplary MO SW-PBS schools for achieving bronze, silver and gold level criteria.
MO SW-PBS personnel continued to hold monthly meetings to: (a) create and revise standardized curriculum, (2) discuss research-based publications to improve training and technical assistance skills, and (3) to determine short and long-range goals for the initiative. Active collaboration with other SW-PBS state initiatives and the national center was ongoing. Collaboration continued with other Missouri agencies and initiatives regarding implementation of proactive services across the three tiers. The MO SW-PBS team continued to build their capacity to better serve Missouri schools and districts.
Since 2010, the state initiative has continued to grow. As of the 2013-2014 school year, there were 790 participating schools in 220 school districts across the state of Missouri.
The state team continues to collaboratively revise the standardized curriculum. High quality training materials have been developed for three training levels at Tier 1 (Preparation, Emerging and Emerging Advanced), two training levels at Tier 2 (Tier 2 and Tier 2 Advanced), and two training levels at Tier 3 (Tier 3 and Tier 3 Advanced). These materials include workbooks that are used by schools across the United States and in other countries.
Also during this time, the MO SW-PBS state team collaborated with OSEDA and DESE to create an online data system that incorporates data from a variety of sources. This data allows schools and districts to look at multiple sets of data in tandem across various performance measures. Reports from this system support schools in making informed and comprehensive data-based decisions regarding school improvement in relation to district, state and national indicators.
MO SW-PBS and DESE personnel began collaboration on the creation of a groundbreaking web-based data system, the MO SW-PBS State Data Profile. The MO SW-PBS SDP .For questions regarding the MO SW-PBS SDP, please contact your regional consultant.
In 2014, the MO SW-PBS State Team suffered the loss of Dr. Mary Miller-Richter. Following her diagnosis with terminal cancer, Dr. Richter took steps to ensure the sustainability of the state initiative. During her tenure as Director of MO SW-PBS, Dr. Richter stressed the need to base all state team decisions and training materials on research identified best practices. Even during her illness, Dr. Richter put the needs of others ahead of her own. She will be missed.
In July of 2014, Nanci Johnson, Ph.D. became the new director of MO SW-PBS. She and the state team are committed to continuing to build on the research based foundation that her friend and colleague Dr. Richter helped lay.